North Eastern Railway Co
In 1854 three companies, York & North Midland Co, Leeds Northern Co and the York, Newcastle & Berwick Co amalgamated to form the North Eastern Railway Company. The amalgamation produced a route system 700 miles long, with administrative headquarters at York. The North Eastern Railway Co continued to expand and gradually other companies were taken over. This included the South Durham & Lancashire Co in 1862, the Stockton & Darlington Co in 1863 and the West Hartlepool Railway Co in 1865.
The North Eastern Railway (NER) now had a virtual monopoly of rail transport in the north-east. However, integration was slow, and an increase in accidents brought warnings concerning the dangers of trying to organize such a large company. After four serious accidents took place on the NER at the end of 1870, the company's general manager, William O'Brien, was sacked.
The North Eastern Railway relied heavily for its income on the transport of coal and other raw materials.
This expanded with the opening of Tyne Dock in 1859.
The NER already owned the docks at Hartlepool and West Hartlepool. They would also take over the Hull Dock Company in 1893.
The NER was the largest constituent of the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) on it's formation in 1923.
The LNER was the second-largest, of the "Big Four" railway companies created by the Railways Act 1921, in Britain. It existed from 1st January 1923 until nationalisation on 1st January 1948.
The North Eastern Railway Co funnel was white with a black top.